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Learning difficulties commonly referred to as learning disabilities, is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulties in learning. This is normally caused by unknown factors. The unknown factor in learning difficulties is the disorder that affects the brains ability to receive and process information. This makes it very difficult for the sufferer to take in new information and puts them in a disadvantage when compared to a person who has not got learning difficulties. People who are affected by this disability commonly have problems in performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if they are left to them selves to figure things out. There for they need more hands on method of teaching. Some people consider the possibilities of curing these disabilities are very low, while others believe that by using cognitive/academic interventions they can be removed. In 1980s the National Joint committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) defines the term learning disabilities as: “a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to Central Nervous System Dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (e.g. sensory impairment, mental retardation, social and emotional disturbance) or environmental influences (e.g. cultural differences, insufficient/inappropriate instruction, psychogenic factors) it is not the direct result of those conditions or influences” Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_disability As mentioned earlier there are many forming of disorders that contribut to Learning Difficulties. Common ones amongst them are; Reading disorder, writing disorder, math disability and Nonverbal learning disability. Common Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Difficulty processing language Problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking Dyscalculia Difficulty with math Problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money Dysgraphia Difficulty with writing Problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Difficulty with fine motor skills Problems with hand–eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty hearing differences between sounds Problems with reading, comprehension, language Visual Processing Disorder Difficulty interpreting visual information Problems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, pictures Source: //www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm Learning Difficulties are often diagnosed by psycologist of some sort whether in school or out of school through a combination of intelligence testing, classroom performance or social interaction. Specialists trained to do psychological testing and result interpretation • Clinical psychologist • School psychologist • Educational psychologist • Developmental psychologist • Neuropsychologist • Psychometrist • Occupational therapist (tests sensory disorders that can lead to learning problems) • Speech and language therapist Most young students who do suffer from these difficulties but are not yet diagnosed tend to be very disruptive or look very bored. It is very important for teachers to be alert and up to date with student’s progress. Other disorders that make learning difficult ADHD- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder This is not considered as a learning difficulty but can certainly disrupt learning. Children with this disorder have problems sitting still, staying focused, following instructions, staying organized, and completing homework. Autism This is when there is difficulty mastering certain academic skills, can stem from Pervasive Developmental Disorders such as autism and Asperger’s syndrome. Children with this disorder may have trouble making friends, reading body language, communicating, and making eye contact. This can make a student very lonely and open the doors to them getting bullied. In conclusion, there are many different types of learning difficulties. It is fair to say that teachers should be trained, especially when dealing with younger learners on how to diagnose or detect signs of learning difficulties. However, there are trained psychologist who are experts in this field and should be consulted if a student has shown signs of any disorders. The earlier disorders are diagnosed, the better it is for the student. Students that are suffering from any disorders and are not diagnosed tend to be troublesome and bored which can even lead to street crimes in the future. There are disorders that make it difficult to learn yet are not always considered to being a learning disability. These are such as ADHD and autism which are common in students that are actually very bright and most geniuses.