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In 1983, Howard Gardner, an education professor at Harvard University came up with his theory of multiple intelligences. He theorized and has since proven that people are proficient in different skills and therefore are stronger in certain ‘intelligences’ than they are in others. When he originally came up with his theory, he stated that there were seven different intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. He has since added two more: naturalist and existential. Gardner’s original intelligences vary from academic skills to artistic skills to personality skills. The following chart provides more detailed information about each one. Intelligence Characteristics Learning Ideas Possible Careers Linguistic ? able to manipulate spoken and written language ? able to easily learn languages ? reading ? taking notes ? listening to lectures ? discussing and debating ? writers ? poets ? lawyers ? public speakers Logical-mathematical ? able to analyze problems logically ? able to manipulate mathematical concepts ? able to investigate scientifically ? creating formulas ? creating calculations ? using precise dimensions ? computer programming ? accounting Bodily-kinesthetic ? able to manipulate their body easily ? doing activities that are physical in nature ? athletes ? pilots ? actors ? surgeons ? soldiers Intelligence Characteristics Learning Ideas Possible Careers Visual-spatial ? able to visualize the world in their mind ? creating mind maps ? creating pictures ? creating graphs ? painters ? photographers ? designers ? architects Musical-rhythmic ? able to perform, compose, and appreciate music ? able to recognize and compose pitches, tones, and rhythms ? having music in the background ? listening to lectures ? listening to audio recordings ? listening to storytelling ? singers ? conductors ? DJs ? public speakers ? composers Interpersonal ? able to understand the intentions, motivations, and desires of others ? working in teams with others ? educators ? social workers ? salespeople Intrapersonal ? able to appreciate their own feelings, fears, and motivations ? working alone ? philosophers ? psychologists ? theologists ? lawyers ? writers Gardner’s newest intelligences deal with interactions with the world and life. The following chart provides more detailed information about them. Intelligence Characteristics Learning Ideas Possible Careers Naturalist ? able to nurture and relate information to one’s surroundings ? doing activities outside ? farmers ? gardeners Existential ? able to pose questions about life and death ? shamans ? priests ? philosophers ? public speakers ? composers How does Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory relate to education? It explains that students learn differently and it is important to plan activities and lessons that encompass the vast variety of strengths in any given classroom. Just because a student is weak in linguistic or logical-mathematical intelligence, which are the two academic intelligences, does not mean that they will not be able to succeed in school. Teachers can differentiate instruction so students are allowed to show their understanding in different ways. For example, if the concept is writing in past perfect form, students who are strong in musical-rhythmic intelligence can sing or rap their sentences. Students who are strong in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence can act out a sentence and then explain how their acting portrays the sentence. By giving students chances to feel successful, they will be more motivated to learn. This in turn will help them stay invested in their education and the teacher.