After reading the document containing the information about the second unit, here is what I learned.
A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing, or idea.
There are five types of nouns : common, proper, compound, abstract and collective.
I also found out that a noun can either be singular or plural. Plurals indicate that there is more than one and are usually created by adding an "s". If, however, a noun ends in “ch”, “sh”, “x”,“s”, in a consonant plus “y”, or in “f”, the rule is different.
Nouns can also fall into two categories : they can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns can be used in the plural and represent people, creatures or things. They are also sometimes preceded by the articles “a”, “an” or “the”. Uncountable nouns, as the name implies, represent things that cannot be counted and cannot have “a” or “an” in front of them.
In another section of the unit, I also read that adjectives are used to describe nouns and can be used in clusters or groups of two or three. The last one is separated by “and” most of the time, but it can be removed in order to give emphasis on the adjectives. There is also an order in which adjectives need to be used but it’s not written in stone.
In the same section of the document, I found out that comparatives are used when comparing two persons or things. When they are used, the following rule must be followed : “(adjective)+...er than”. A few short adjectives change the final “y” into an “i” and some double the final consonant “n”, “t” or “d” when preceded by a single short vowel. Superlatives, however, are used when comparing nouns to the highest degree. When they are used, the following rule must be followed : “the (adjective)+...est”. Adjectives with three syllables or more are preceded by “the most” and some of them double the final consonant “n”, “t” or “d” when preceded by a single short vowel.
In another part of the unit, I learned that there are two types of articles : definite or indefinite. Definite articles (“the”) are used when we are referring to a specific member of a group or when a noun refers to something which is unique. They are also used with uncountable nouns in some cases. “The” is, however, not used with nouns referring to something in a general sense. This is often referred to as the zero article and represented by the symbol “?” and can also be used for general ideas about countable nouns.
As opposed to definite articles, indefinite articles (“a” and “an”) are used when referring to any member of a group and are only used with singular nouns when the noun is general. I also now know when to use “a” and “an” in a sentence. I also found out that definite articles must not be used before most names of countries along with names of cities, streets, lakes, bays (except groups of lakes), mountains (except ranges of mountains), continents and islands (except with island chains). They must, however be used before names of rivers, oceans and seas along with points on the globe, geographical areas, deserts, forests, gulfs and peninsulas.
In another section of the unit, discovered that verbs can be separated in two categories : action or state. Some verbs are called transitive verbs and are followed directly by an object as opposed to intransitive verbs which cannot be followed directly by the latter. On the other hand, I learned about the difference between the subject and the object in a sentence and that verbs can have 4 principal forms : base form, past simple, past participle and present participle.
A part of the second unit also provided information about infinitives. They represent an action as a whole and are formed by preceding the base form with “to”. Some intransitive verbs are followed by infinitives to denote a consequence of an action.
I also know, now that I’ve read the document, that auxiliary verbs form a tense or an expression by combining with present or past participle of infinitives of other verbs. It is also not the verb that carries the main meaning and there are only three : “do”, “have” and “be”. Finally, I learned that many of the most common verbs are irregular.
One of the sections in the second unit was about adverbs. They usually add meaning or information to the action, quality or state denoted by a verb. Adverbs of degree can also modify an adjective or another adverb.
I also read about the five main and some other notable types of adverbs. Most of them are simply formed by adding “-ly” at the end of an adjective and are usually located after the object of an transitive verb. Some adverbs, however, are irregular.
I also read about where adverbs can be placed in a sentence when there many of them. There is no hard rule but they usually follow this order: place, manner and time.
During my reading, I finally learned, that :
-A gerund is the “-ing” form of a verb and is used as a noun.
-Pronouns are words that are used in place of more precise nouns or noun phrases.
-There are four types of pronouns : personal, possessive, reflexive and relative.
-Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in a sentence.
-The main types of prepositions are the following : time or date, movement along with place or position.
- Conjunctions join words or groups in a sentence and they can do two things : join words of the same class or join clauses in a sentence.