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Here’s a summary of what I’ve learnt while reading the eighth unit.
Here are the seven most common future tenses :
-The future simple
-The future continuous
-The future perfect
-The future perfect continuous
-Be going + infinitive (it is one of the most frequently used forms)
-The present simple (it can also be used as present tense)
-The present continuous (it is one of the most frequently used forms and it can also be used as present tense)
I also learned that the future simple has the following forms :
-When the form is affirmative, it looks like this : (“I shall/will”, “You will”, “he/she/it will”, “we shall/will” or “they will”) + verb.
-When the form is negative, it goes as follows : (“I will not/shall not”, “you will not”, “he/she/it will not”, “we shall/will not” or “they will not”) + verb.
-When the form involves a question, the structure is the following : (“Shall/will I?”, “will you?”, “will he/she/it?”, “shall/will we?” or “will they?”) + verb.
-When the form is a negative question, the form looks like this : Will/shall I not? Will you not? or Won't /shan't I? etc.
Finally, the contractions have the following structure :
I will not= I won't
I shall not = I shan’t
You will not = you won’t
He/she/it will not = he/she/it won’t
We will not = we won’t
We shall not = we shan’t
They will not = they won’t
The following detail is also important to remember : “Shall” and “shan't”, are used in the UK only.
I also read that the future simple has the following usages :
-Future facts and certainties
-Predictions (not based on present evidence, as opposed to “be going to”)
-Assumptions or speculations
On the other hand, “shall” is frequently used when making suggestions, invitations etc. It is used in more formal affirmative sentences as well. ”Will”, however, generally expresses a stronger intention, coercion, or determination than “shall”.
A teacher should also know that, a common error while using the future simple, is the confusion between “be going to” and the future simple.
I also read about the future continuous tense. It has the following form : subject + will + be + verb +ing (present participle).
Its usages are the following :
-To say that something will be in progress at a particular moment in the future.
-To predict the present, to say what we think or to guess might be happening now.
-For polite inquiries referring to other people's plans, but not to influence the listener's intentions.
-To refer to future events which are fixed or decided (without suggesting personal intention).
One of the errors that students make often is to formulate sentences in which some parts are missing. The idea that the action will continue around a specific point in the future also sometimes causes confusion.
I’ve also learnt that the future perfect has the following form : will + have + past participle.
It is used to say that something will have been done, completed or achieved by a certain time in the future.
The perfect structures are all relative. In the case of the future perfect, we look back on the past (a completed action) from a future standpoint. That is "past in the future". It is also essential to remember that a sentence with the future perfect generally uses an adverbial expression that signals when the future event will be completed.
The future perfect can also often be confused with future perfect continuous. English teachers need to make sure that their students understand the distinction between the completion of an action by a certain time in the future and how long something will have continued for by a certain time (future perfect continuous) .
Another tense I read about is the future perfect continuous. Its form is the following : will + have + been + verb + ing. It is used when we need to say how long something will have continued by a certain time and it often includes an adverbial expression that begins with “by”.
I studied another tense referred to as “be going + infinitive” and it has the following form : verb “to be” in the present + “going to” + the base form of the verb.
Since the structure looks very similar to the present continuous, this tense can cause confusion, especially when the present continuous form uses the verb “to go”. The teacher needs to make sure that the students understand the following difference : in the “be going + infinitive” tense, the “be going to” structure is always followed by a verb.
I also read about the tense’s usages. They are the following :
-Predictions based on present evidence
-Plans (decisions made before speaking)
English teachers need to remember that the “be going to” future's usage is often confused with the future simple and teaching the two at the same time is likely to help students understand the differences.
The use of present simple when referring to the future was also explained in the eighth unit. The form is the same, but its usages are the following:
-To suggest a more formal situation.
-For timetables and schedules.
-To suggest a more impersonal tone (often implying an outside compulsion).
The present continuous can also be used as a future tense. Once again, the form is the same. Its usages, however, go as follows :
-For definite arrangements
-For decisions and plans without a time frame