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Unit 4 discusses the present tenses, they are divided into four tenses: present simple, present continuous, present perfect, and present perfect continuous.
Present simple is the most common tense and is used to talk about general facts, routines, habits, and things in general. When using this tense, verbs are modified in one of four ways: adding an “s” to the end of a verb; adding an “es” if ending in “ch, sh, z, s,” and if using the verbs “do” or “go;” adding an “ies” when ending with a consonant and “y;” and finally the irregular verbs “be” and “have” require the use of “am, is, are” and “have, has” respectively.
Present continuous is used to talk about actions in progress at the time of speaking or around the time of speaking. This simply uses the verb “be” followed by a present participle verb ending in ”ing.” This tense requires the use of “am, are, is” which are forms of the verb “to be.”
Present perfect is used to relay something in the past to the present. It uses the helper verbs “have, has,” followed by the main verb in past participle form ending in “ed.” When looking at the irregular verbs “go, be, write, speak, read,” the word change to “gone, been, written, spoken, read.” Even though “read” stays spelled the same, the pronunciation changes from “reed” to “red.” When ending with a consonant and “y,” the “y” changes to “ies.” If ending pattern is CVC, we double the last letter and add “ed.”
Present perfect continuous is used when there is an action continuing up until the present point in time. This tense combines the present continuous tense with the present perfect tense. It uses the “to be” and the “ing” ending from the present continuous tense. It is very similar to present perfect tense, except focuses on action that is continued until the present.
This unit showed me just how similar present tenses could seem. Consequently, I will need to study hard until I am able to recognize each of them instinctively. I cannot allow students to get confused.