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Unit 2 discusses the parts of speech. A noun is a person, place, thing, or concept. There are countable and uncountable nouns. Additionally, nouns can be common, proper, compound, or collective.
Verbs can be actions or states. Auxiliary verbs are the helper verbs. They can be used to form questions, negatives, or short answer. Verb tenses are split into continuous and perfect. The past tense of regular verbs end in “ed”, such as in worked or played. Unlike regular verbs, irregular verbs require a completely new word to show past tense, an example being “go” which becomes “went.”
Adjectives describe nouns and can be combined. When combined, they usually follow a certain pattern of size, age, color, and material. Words like “his” or “hers” are possessive adjectives. Understanding comparatives and superlative is somewhat difficult, as there are different rules for one and two syllable words, words ending in Y, other two or three syllable words, and irregular adjectives such as good or bad.
Adverbs are one of the following: manner, time, place, or frequency. Prepositions are used to show relationship between nouns or pronouns within a sentence. They are split into four types: time, place, movement, and others, such as “of, with, and for”. Pronouns can be personal, reflexive, relative, or possessive.
Gerunds take verbs and add “ing” to the end, and are used as nouns in sentences following verbs. They are quite tricky to spot as they can be used after a preposition, to start a sentence, or to end a sentence.
Articles fall into three categories: indefinite, definite, and zero article. Indefinite articles are nonspecific, and use “a” or “an.” Definite articles are specific, ad use “the.” Zero articles are general or inclusive.
Conjunctions are linking or joining words used to combine two independent clauses. These words are “and,” “but,” and “or.” They can be used to exclude or subtract something, include or add something, or create options or give choices.