In this unit, I have learned about the different parts of speech that one can find in a sentence.Firstly there is the noun; a word that names a person, state or thing. There are five main types of nouns such as the common, proper, compound, abstract, and collective noun. The noun can also be defined between countable and uncountable, the difference is whether a thing can or can’t be counted. Example of a countable noun: There are two cars in the parking lot. Example of an uncountable noun: There is a lot of fish in the sea.The second part of speech is the adjective; this describes the noun such as people or things. With an adjective, there is a basic rule for its positioning you go in order of size, age, color, material and noun. There are two different types of adjectives, the comparatives and superlatives. The comparative adjective compares two people or things. The superlative adjective is used when we compare more than two things or people. Example of a comparative adjective: Donald is wiser than Fred. Example of a superlative adjective: Fred is the richest in the building. The third part of speech is the article; its use mainly depends on whether you are referring to any member of a group or to a specific member of a group. There are mainly three types of articles the definite, indefinite and the zero article. The indefinite article ‘a’ and ‘an’ that the noun modified is indefinite. The definite article ‘the’ is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is particular or specific. The ‘the’ signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group in other words “ you know which one”. The zero article is not used with nouns referring to something in a general sense. Examples of the indefinite article: a sock, an elderly person, a uniform. Examples of the definite article: The Eiffel tower, The short is pink, Bring the jam with! The fourth part of speech is the verb; it refers to actions and state and is used with a subject to form the basis of a sentence. Also known as a “doing” word. All verbs are either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb is a verb that is followed directly by an object and an intransitive verb is a verb that can’t be followed directly by an object, it doesn’t do anything to anyone simply does an action which stands on its own. There is also an auxiliary verb that helps form a tense or expression by combining with present or past participles. Example of the transitive verb: He threw the ball. Example of the intransitive verb: She ran early today. Examples of auxiliary verb: Sam is having a bath at the moment, I have been to the city four times today, Do you drink?
The fifth part of speech is the adverb. In general, these add meaning or information to the action, quality or state denoted by a verb. There are five main types of adverbs; manner, place, time, degree and frequency. Other notable types of nouns are attitude, linking, viewpoint, and limiting. Adverbs are mostly formed by adding ‘-ly’ to an adjective as ever there are exceptions. The most common mistakes lie in the spelling and positioning of the adverb. Adverbs go in the order of place, manner then time for example: She will walk there quickly this afternoon. The sixth part of speech is the gerund. It is a verb form which functions as a noun, it is the ‘-ing’ form of a verb used as a noun. Some verbs such as admit, consider, delay, remember, like etc. are usually followed by the gerund form when another verb is used. For example: He admitted stealing the money. Prepositions are sometimes followed by the gerund if an action is indicated. For example: Sam always has breakfast before attending her classes. The seventh part of speech is the pronoun; it’s a word that is used instead of more precise nouns or noun phrases. There are four types of pronouns; personal, possessive, reflexive and relative. Personal pronouns include I, me, you, him, she, it, her them etc. Reflexive pronouns include myself, yourself, itself, themselves etc. Relative pronouns include who, which, that and whose. Possessive pronouns include mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs and its. The eighth part of speech is the preposition and conjunction. The preposition shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the sentence. There are three main types; time, place and movement. Examples of time prepositions include at, on, by and since. Examples of movement prepositions include from, to, in, into and by. Examples of place prepositions include in, at, on, above and beneath.The difficulty of the prepositions lies in the fact that there is no uniformity when it comes to preposition placement. Conjunctions join words or groups in a sentence. They can either join words of the same class ( e.g. He reads books and magazines) or join clauses of sentences (e.g. He finished his homework as soon as they left).