Every Language has a particular grammar, to make easier to learn and understand your own native language or even a second one, the language is divided into different parts, known as the parts of speech. The parts of speech are also divided into different categories. They link to each other making the sentences clearly and understandable to transmit a meaning, giving us the ability to communicate.
The most important parts of speech are: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, infinitives, gerunds, articles and conjunctions.
A noun identifies things, people, places, ideas/concepts and they can take place of an object or subject in a sentence. They are also separated in groups like common nouns, for example: table, paper, Geography; proper nouns: Japan, Grand Canyon; compound nouns, nouns that combine two nouns and change the meaning: toothpaste, washing machine; abstract nouns, nouns that we cannot see or count: beauty, sound or collective nouns, nouns that name a group of multiple members: team, choir. If we can count a noun, they are countable nouns, if they cannot, they are uncountable nouns, for example, the word paper can't be counted but we can count sheets of paper.
Verbs are words that represent actions. Verbs can be actions verbs, we can see these actions happening or they can be state verbs, that represents a state of being, we can't see those actions but we know it is happening. Another type of verb is the auxiliary verbs. They help to make questions, negatives forms and short answers, they dont have a meaning and also indicate the time of speech, the tenses, such as past, future or present. You need to pay attention when to conjugate verbs, they can be regular or irregular verbs. Regular verbs you conjugate by simply adding the same tense suffix but it changes when it comes to irregular verbs. There is no other way to learn about irregular verbs than memorizing them. Transitive verbs are used with an object: a noun, phrase, or pronoun that refers to the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb, meanwhile an intransitive verb does not need an object.
Adjectives modify or describe a noun, it helps to give more information about them. Possessive adjectives show to who those nouns belong to, describing the noun. Comparatives adjectives, as the name suggests, compare two nouns. Finally we have superlatives adjectives, they compare one noun to each another one of a whole/group. You use them by adding the suffix –er(comparative) or –est (superlatives) for words that end with two consonants. But every rule has an exception, for words that end with a consonant/vowel/ consonant we double the last consonant and add the suffix. For two syllable words that end with letter y, we drop the y letter and add the suffix –ier and for words with two or more syllables we put the word "more" in front of the word for comparatives and "the most" for superlatives adjectives, maintaning the regular form.
On the contrary, adverbs describe the verbs. They are classified into: adverbs of manner that describe how things are done; adverbs of place that describe where the action happens; adverbs of time describring whe the actions happen and adverbs of frequency describing how often the actions happen. There are also adverbs of degree that intensify a noun, verb or even an adverb.
Prepositions show relationship between a noun or a pronoun and the rest of the sentence. There are three most common types of prepositions: time, place and movement
Pronouns take the place of a noun. Personal pronouns- object recieves the action or subject does the action, reflexive pronouns actions that reflects to ourselves or someone else itself, relative and possessive pronouns.
Infinitive is the word "to" followed by the regular form of the verb and gerund is the verb with the suffix –ing and it takes place of a noun in the sentence.
Articles are classified into three groups: indefinitive (a/an) it refers to a general idea while the definitive article (the) limits and idea to a particular thing and zero article when sometimes the article it nonextistent. The use of the articles an/a is related to the sound of the following word, either the word first letter of the word sound like a vowel or a consonant. The best way to know which sound the word starts it is by looking at the phonetic transcription. Compare these two words that start with the letter "h": horse (/h?rs/), hourglass (/?a?r??læs/). One sounds like a vowel (hourglass) and the other one sound like a consonant (horse).
Conjunctions are linking words, they connect words, phrases or clauses together. The most common conjunctions are: and, but, yet, or, so, for.
In the following sentence: Susan likes to play basketball while her friends go to swimming class.
"Susan" indicates the person who does the action, the object of the sentence. It is a proper noun because is used to name a particular person.
"Likes and go" are action verbs, likes as an intransitive verb, while basketball is the object and go as an transitive verb does not need one.
"To play" is an infinitive, the basic form of the verb and its followed by a verb
In this case, the word Basketball is a sport, an uncountable noun. The basketball,the ball used in the game is countable.
"While" is a conjunction
Her is a possessive adjective. It does not take a place of a noun like a pronoun but it gives more information about the noun like and adjective and its followed by a noun.
"friends" and "class" are common and countable nouns
"to" is a preposition of movement
"swimming" is not a verb although it can be confused with the progressive form of swim. In this case, swimming is a gerund, noun.
In the next sentence: She usually travels with him and they seem quite happy. The most adorable couple I have ever seen.
"She" is a subject pronoun, the subject of the sentence.
"usually" is and adverb of frequency, shows how often the subject of the sentence does the action.
"travels" is an intransitive verb.
"with" is a preposition that describes the relantionship between the noun "she" and the rest of the sentence.
"him" is an object pronoun.
"and" is a conjunction and joins the two structures of the sentence.
"they" is a subject pronoun.
"seem" is a state verb, we cannot see the action happening.
"quite" is and adverb used before an adjective.
"happy" is an adjective.
"the most adorable" is a superlative adjective. In this sentence, it compares this couple to every other adorable couple the subject has seen before.
"couple" is a common noun.
"I have ever seen" this is an example of a auxiliary verb, used in the present perfect tense. As we can see the verb "have" does not have a meaning.