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UNIT 3 THEORIES, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OVERVIEW Unit 3 covered the right EFL teaching methodology, correcting student mistakes effectively and giving feedback efficiently. Common Teaching Methods: I. Grammar-translation - learning about a language through finding equivalents in the student's own language and for the language being learned. II. Audio-lingualism - behaviorist theory basically suggests that much learning is as a result of habit formation through conditioning. III. Presentation, Present and Production - teacher first present context and situation for the language, students then practice making sentences before going to the production stage. IV. Task-based Learning - focuses on the task than the language. V. Communicative Language Teaching - stresses the importance of language functions as opposed to reliance only on grammar and vocabulary. VI. Community Language Learning - student-centered communication to improve conversational skills. VII. The Silent Way - student's own discovery of the language with less help form the teacher. VIII. Suggestopaedia - focuses on the need of the student to promote willingness to learn. IX. The Lexical Approach - gives more importance to words and phrases as a better building blocks than just grammatical structure. ENGAGE, STUDY & ACTIVATE - is the most important and effective teaching method by Jeremy Harmer. *Elicitation is the most important aspect and condition of this method as it asks thought provoking questions to students with the use of different techniques and here are a few examples of activities: a. Flashcards b. Drawings c. Mime Engage Phase - is the most imperative preliminary stage of teaching as it arouses the interests of the student with the subject matter. The goal is to get the students' attention in order for them to learn in a fun yet effective way. The teacher can do this by preparing activities, the following are a few examples: a. Introduction Prompts - simply write a prompt on the board and have students introduce themselves with their names and information about themselves. b. Information Search - list of information on the board such as job, favorite sport, etc. Students stand up and have a mingle conversation to find one piece of information about each person in the room. c. Adjectival Introductions - get students to introduce the person next to them just by appearance. STUDY PHASE - this stage the student will focus on developing their sentence construction, grammar and vocabulary. Therefor, the activities will conducive to such learning: a. Tongue Twisters b. Hangman c. Word Searches ACTIVATE PHASE - this is the final stage where the students will be encouraged to put what they've learned into practice, in the case of learning the English language the students will converse to the best of their abilities with their fellow students, using the following activities: a. Significant role-plays according to the subject matter. b. Debate are usually done by those have reached intermediate to advance-language level students. c. Story Building where students creates stories from a certain concept. However students get bored if the teaching method gets too mundane and repetitive so there are two more devised methods, which is essentially the same but a little bit more unconventional and open, they are as follows: > Straight-arrow ESA is the standard engage, study and activate method. > Boomerang ESA lesson is the sequencing of the lesson to give more possibilities while sitll incorporating ESA. i.e. Engage - Activate - Study - Activate > Patchwork ESA lesson is the most unorthodox and unpredictable method that requires a lot of mini-sequences building to a whole. FEEDBACK - the factors that needs to be considered are as follows: > Individual students > Culture and expected role of the teacher. > The stage of the lesson > The type of activity CORRECTIONS - the guidelines when it comes to giving corrections to student in every phase. > Engage Phase - students should not be corrected during this stage. > Study Phase - repeated mistakes should be noted and dealt with during this stage. > Activate Phase - feedback and correct as necessary making sure that there is enough allocated time for the students to participate. Note: I accidentally passed Unit Test 2 last time without completing the overview. I am hoping you will still consider the summary I will be attaching here on this answer sheet, thank you very much for your kind consideration. - Dianne UNIT II PARTS OF SPEECH This unit covered the parts of speech as an introduction to grammar and they are as follows: I. Noun - names people, animals, places, things, qualities as well as states. i.e. Dianne, dolphin, earth, trampoline, majestic, clarity. Main types: a. Common - no capital letter. b. Proper - always starts with a capital letter. c. Compound - two nouns joined to make new noun. d. Abstract - something we experience as an idea and cannot be touched. e. Collective - name of a group of individuals as if they are one. f. Plural - noun indicates more than one. g. Countable nouns - nouns that can be counted. h. Uncountable nouns- nouns that cannot be counted. II. Adjective - describes noun. i.e. indelible, verbose & independent. *In describing a noun there are basic rules to follow to put adjectives in order: size - age - color - material - noun i.e. Small, young, brown-skinned lady. *However there are also comparisons of nouns which then gives us the comparative adjective and superlative adjective. Comparative adjectives usually ends in -er while superlative ends in -est when comparing two different things. III. Articles - used to describe a particular kind of object. Two types: a. Definite Article - a/an b. Indefinite Article - the IV. Verbs - a doing word, an action verb and can refer to states. a. Action verbs: read, jump and fly. b. State verbs: appear, smell and feel. Kinds: a. Transitive - verb followed directly by an object. b. Intransitive - verb that cannot be followed by an object. c. Infinitive - verb preceded by to. Verb Forms: >base form >past simple >past participle >present participle i.e. play > played > played > playing *auxiliary verbs are helping verbs. Three of its kinds: do, have and be. V. Adverbs - Add meaning or information to the action, qualities and state denoted by a verb. Main Types: a. Manner ex. quickly b. Place ex. below c. Time ex. now d. Degree ex. extremely e. Frequency ex. once Notable Types: a. Comment ex. freely b. Linking ex. fristly c. Viewpoint ex. mentally d. Adding/Limiting ex. moreover VI. Gerunds - the - ing form of a verb. i.e. smiling VII. Pronouns - words that are used as a replacement to a more precise noun. a. Personal ex. I, me and you b. Possessive - no article c. Reflexive ex. myself, yourself d. Relative ex. who, which, that, whose *use to introduce relative clauses. VIII. Prepositions / Conjuncltions Main Types: a. Time - since, after, about b. Movement - into, off, through c. Place - below, beneath, in front of * Conjunctions - join words/groups in a sentence.