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UNIT 18 MODALS, PHRASAL VERBS AND PASSIVE VOICE I. Modal Auxiliary Verbs - is a type of verb that indicates modality like ability, possibility, permission and obligation. The 'modals' are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, got to, have got to, need to, needn't, and ought to. They are important to use if the speaker or writer wants to add meaning to the main verb.Here are different Ideas with usage of every modal: a. Obligation - I really must study, I have a lot backlog. b. Possibility - I might go to the British Festival this coming weekend. c. Permission/Prohibition - You may come in now. d. Ability - I can write my own songs. e. Advice - You should be listening more to podcast about philosophy. Additionally modal auxiliary verbs are also used to express differing levels of formality. For example you use 'may' if you are in a formal situation and 'can' for more informal events. The following are lists of modals with its usage. Auxiliary Uses a. May > Polite request, Formal permission, Less than 50% certainty b. Might > Much less than 50% certainty, Polite request (rare) c. Need to > Need or necessity, Lack of need or necessity, optional need or necessity d. Must > Obligation, Prohibition (negative only), 95% certainty of assumption. e. Have to > Necessity, Lack of necessity f. Have got to > Strong necessity g. Should / Ought to > Moral obligation, 90% certainty h. Should > Unexpected past result i. Can > Ability, Informal permission, Informal polite request, Assumed impossibility j. Could > Past ability, Polite request, suggestion, Uncertainty, Improbability k. Be able to > Ability l. Would > Polite request, Preference, Repeated past action II. Passive Voice Two Voices in English: a. The active voice focuses on the agent. b. In the passive voice the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Form: Auxiliary verb 'be' + past participle *For both the active voice and the passive, the tense of the sentence always remains the same. In the passive voice the tense is indicated by the auxiliary verb 'be', and in the active voice, the tense is shown by the main verb. Usage: The passive is most frequently used when it is not known, not important, or we don't want to say exactly who performs an action. It could also be used with a by phrase to indicate who performs the action. III. Relative Clause - is a group of words containing the subject and a verb. It is introduced by a relative pronoun: who, which, that, whose and whom. 3 Categories: a. Independent Clause - a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. b. Dependent Clause - not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause. c. Relative Clause a.k.a. adjective clause - is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. 2 types: a. Defining relative clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence, it makes clear which person or thing is being talked about. For example: My boyfriend who lives at number 10 has been killed. In this sample it means the speaker has many boyfriends. b. Non-defining relative clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Commas are imperative to non-defining relative clause. For example: My boyfriend, who lives at number 10 has been shot in the head. The speaker means he has only one boyfriend. IV. Phrasal Verbs - consists of a verb plus one or two particles. 3 Basic types of phrasal verbs: Type 1 - Intransitive - cannot be followed by a direct object. Type 2 - Intransitive Separable - with 2 phrasal verbs an object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle or an object noun can come either between the verb and the particle or after the particle. Type 3 - Transitive Inseparable - with this type of phrasal verb, the object phrase or object pronoun both come after the particle.