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Overview Conditionals & Reported Speech Unit 16
We talk about the word If or a similar word when. And how they are used in the present past and future possibilities. When using these sentence with if we are talking about something which is factual or completely impossible and anything that lies in between.
If this happens-then that happens
Eg Lets see some examples
If you heat ice < result > it melts.
If + Present simple + Present simple
It refers to actions and facts that are irrefutable. You can use 'if' or 'when' with no change in meaning.
“If I get up early I go for a walk”
These are used when we talk about situations which are general always true.
1 Scientific facts
2 General Truths
3 Issues/ Situations Certain to Happen
Eg using WHEN action is certain to take place
When you cut yourself you bleed.
Teaching Idea’s play PELMANISM
Form if + present simple, will ('will' can be replaced by a modal verb. E.g. may, might, can, should, must)
If he studies hard, he will pass the exam.
Promise , Threats, & back up plans
Form if + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle.
If I won the lottery, I would travel the world.
Dreams, Fantasies, Hypothetical Situations
Form if + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle
If I had practiced the piano, I would have been better.
Regrets & excuses
Form : If + past perfect, would + base form
Reported speech & direct speech:
Direct speech is what we say to each other and reported speech is what is said to a third person.
You should have noted a number of changes, when the reporter uses a reporting verb in the past, such as said, told, asked, etc are mainly used
As to Direct speech to Reported Speech
You also should have noticed that the pronoun denoting who is spoken to can also change, very much depending on the context.
These are also modified if back shifting. For example, 'today' becomes 'that day', 'yesterday' becomes 'the day before' or 'the previous day', 'tomorrow' becomes 'the next day' or 'the day after' etc. These changes need to be taught as students progress through the levels. But the 'golden rule' with all the different categories is to take each one at a time and to do it slowly and thoroughly.