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Grammar is the area of English where most students have trouble. This section is focused on some of the different parts of speech that are used to construct sentences.
Nouns identify people, animals, places, things, states, or qualities. There are five main types of nouns: common, proper, collective, compound, and abstract. Plural nouns usually have an s added to the end, unless the word ends in ch, sh, x, or s. Moreover, if the noun ends in f, we change it to a v and add es, or, if it ends in a consonant plus y, we change it to an i and add es. There are many irregular plural nouns(moose) that each student will need to memorize over time. Nouns that can't be used as a plural and can't be counted are known as uncountable nouns. Those that can be counted are called countable nouns.
Verbs are used with a noun (subject) and are either action (eat,kick, etc.) or state verbs (be, seem, etc.). All verbs are transitive (a verb that is followed by an object) or intransitive (a verb that simply does an action). Verbs have four different forms: base(kick), past (kicked), past participle (kicked), and present participle (kicking). There are many irregular verbs that do not follow the same rules and need to be memorized. Infinitives are the base form of a verb with to preceding it and refers to the action as a whole. Auxiliary verbs, thusly, help form a tense and add structure by adding a past or present participle, or infinitive.
Articles come in two forms: definite (the) and indefinite (a, an).
Adjectives are used to describe nouns, and can come in two forms: Comparative (adjective plus er [modifier changes depending on how the word ends and whether it has three or more syllables]) and superlative (adjective plus est [changes depending on the end of the word and whether it has three or more syllables]). Arrange multiple adjectives in a sentence by size, age, colour, and then material.
Adverbs add meaning or information to the action, or the state indicated by a verb. The main types of adverbs are manner (softly), place (here), time (now), degree (very), and frequency (often). They are usually placed after the object of a transitive or immediately after an intransitive verb.
Pronouns are used in place of nouns and has four types: Personal (I, he), possessive (mine, hers), relative (that, who), and reflexive (myself, themselves).
Prepositions help show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence (I sat in the barrel) and can be categorized into three types (place, time, or movement).
Conjunctions are words that join words of the same type or join clauses of sentences.
The understanding and correct usage of each of these, and other, parts of speech will require copious amounts of memorization and immersion in the language and it is important to make sure to keep the learning of these more tedious parts of language learning stimulating by using activities and examples to liven up the class when the topic becomes more daunting.