PARTS OF SPEECH
A noun names people, animals, places, things, qualities, states.
• Common - no capital letter – e.g. home, dog, school
• Proper – with capital letter – e.g. America, Mariam
• Compound – 2 nouns joined to make new noun –e.g. classroom, post office
• Abstract – as an idea and cannot touch –e.g. beauty, intelligence, happiness
• Collective – a group of individuals as if they were one- e.g. family, herd
Plurals: singular +s
• s, ss, x, ch, sh + es
• f – v + es EXCEPTION: brief-briefs
• man – men
• foot – feet
• fish – fish
Countable nouns: a car- cars, an egg- eggs
Uncountable nouns: music, advice, rice, water
We use adjectives to describe nouns such as people and things.
Size – age – color – material – noun
Comparative form: one syllable adj. + er than – e.g. thin – thinner
more + two syllable adj. + than – e.g. difficult- more difficult
Superlative form: the + one syllable adj. + est– e.g. thin – thinnest
the most + three syllable adj. + est – e.g. difficult- the most difficult
Irregular form: good – better – the best
bad – worse – the worst
Definite article – the – before singular and plural nouns, the noun is particular or specific
? “you know which one”
? Something which is unique
Do not use the:
• Names of countries
• Cities, towns, states
• Lakes and bays
• Names of rivers, oceans, seas
• Points on the globe
• Geographical areas
• Deserts, forests, gulfs, peninsulas
Indefinite article – a, an – only singular nouns, the noun is general
? Type of plant
Zero article – 0 – Uncountable + general
Countable + plural
The verb is a “doing” word.
• Action verbs - +ing , e.g. go, watch, eat, play, walk
• State verbs - +ing , e.g. be, seem, appear, smell, feel
? Transitive verbs – is followed directly my an object.
e.g. David plays football.
Transitive verbs – cut, repeat, squash, contradict, unearth, make
? Intransitive verbs – cannot be followed directly my an object, these verbs do an action, it stands alone.
e.g. David arrived.
Transitive verbs – verbs of movement – go, arrive, skate, fall, promise, come, depart, speak, sleep
It’s a verb’s base form + to
e.g. to go, to cry, to eat, to unearth
6. Verb forms
Regular verbs hope hoped hoped hoping
begin began begun beginning
7. Auxiliary verbs
There are 3 auxiliary verbs:
Base form Present Past simple Past participle
Be Am, is , are Was, were Been
Do Do, does Did Done
Have Have, has Had had
• Tenses – continuous, perfect
Auxiliary verbs help form a tense or an expression by combining with present or past participles or infinitives or other verbs. It’s not a verb that carries the main meaning, it helps to form a structure.
These add meaning or information to the action, quality or state denoted by a verb.
Five main types:
• Manner – well, hard, slowly, quickly
• Place – above, up, here, there
• Time – now, then, soon, recently
• Degree – very, much, really, quite
• Frequency – once, twice, sometimes, often, always
Other notable types:
• Comment/ attitude – actually, perhaps, surely, wisely
• Linking – firstly
• Viewpoint – mentally, morally, officially
• Adding/ Limiting – also, either, else, only, too
Adverb = Adjective + ly
e.g. slow - slowly
honest – honestly
EXCEPTION: tidy – tidily
fast – fast (no change)
The position of adverbs: verb + object + adverb e.g. He ate his lunch quickly.
verb +adverb e.g. He drives quickly.
Adverbs of frequency: subject + adv. of frequency + verb e.g. She always sleeps after lunch.
auxiliary verb + adv. of frequency + verb
place – manner – time
e.g. He will drive there slowly tomorrow.
A gerund is the – ing form of a verb used as a noun. It’s used in the same way as a noun, as a subject or an object.
e.g. Playing tennis is fun. playing-(subject) gerund, is- verb
e.g. He enjoys playing tennis. playing-(object) gerund, enjoy- verb
These verbs are usually followed by the gerund: admit, like, delay, remember, consider
It’s a word what is used instead or in place of more precise nouns or noun phrases.
1. Personal – subject – pronoun + verb
I, he she, it, we, you, they
object – verb + pronoun
me, him, her, it, us, you, them
2. Possessive – mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, its (never contains an apostrophe)
• are not followed by a noun and have no articles – e.g. That car is mine.
Take the place of a noun Possessive adjective
Describe the noun
3. Reflexive– myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
4. Relative- who, which, that, whose
• they connect relative clauses – e.g. The man that I marry will be rich.
It shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the sentence.
• time/ date – at, on, before, in, from, since, for, during, to, until, after, about
• movement – from, to, in, into, on, onto, by, off, out, through, over
• place/ position – in, at, on, by, above, over, under, below, beneath, besides, between, near, next to, behind, in front of
• of, with
They join words or groups in a sentence.
They can do two things:
1. Join words of the same class i.e. pairs of nouns/ adjs./ advs/ verbs/ phrases
• and, but, or, nor, yet
• both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also
2. Join clauses of sentences
• as, as soon as, before, since, until when, because, although, unless, so, in order that