In this unit, our primary focus is on present tense. Present tense expresses the action or state in the present time. However, this system has caused students and English teacher problems as the argument would arise. In this unit, the areas that would be covered are, form, usages, typical student errors and activate stage teaching ideas. Also, four present tense will be looked upon, the present simple tense, present continuous tense, present perfect tense and present perfect continuous tense.
The present simple tense, is used to describe habits, repeated actions, instructions, fixed arrangements. To form the present simple tense, there are 3 forms attached to it, which are, affirmative, interrogative and negative. To form with the word ‘to think’ in an affirmative form is ‘I think, you think, he thinks, they think, it thinks’. To form it in an interrogative way, ‘do you think, do I think, does he think, do they think, does it think’. And the negative way, ‘I do not think, you do not think, he does not think, they do not think, it does not think’. To form third person singular, ‘s’ should be added to the verb, for instance, ‘think’ to ‘thinks’, ‘drive’ to ‘drives’, ‘eat’ to ‘eats. Also, verbs that are ending with a consonant, like the letter ‘y’, is to be changed to ‘i’ and ‘es’ is to be added as such, ‘try’ to ‘tries’.
The present continuous tense simple add ‘-ing’ to the given verb. This is to allow the person speaking or the writer, to talk about things that are happening and things that are not happening at the current moment. There are also 3 forms attached to present continuous form, as we have seen above, affirmative, interrogative and negative. For instance, the verb ‘learn’ when converted to present continuous tense will be known as ‘learning’, as also ‘sleep’ to ‘sleeping’, note the verbs changes to ‘-ing’. For affirmative form, ‘I am sleeping’, ‘you are sleeping’, ‘they are sleeping’, ‘it is sleeping’. For interrogative form, ‘Am I sleeping’, ‘are you sleeping’, ‘are they sleeping’, ‘is it sleeping’. And for the negative form, ‘I am not sleeping’, ‘you are not sleeping’, ‘they are not sleeping’, ‘it is not sleeping’.
The present perfect tense, relates the part to the present. Regular verbs such as ‘play’, only ‘ed’ is to be added at the end, from ‘play’ to ‘played’. There are also irregular verbs, and these verbs are written for example, ‘eat’ to ‘eaten’, ‘write’ to ‘written’. To form an affirmative sentence, the form is ‘I have written’, ‘I have eaten’. Negative sentence, ‘I haven’t written’, ‘I haven’t eaten’. And finally, a question should be asked as, ‘Have I written’, ‘have I eaten’.
The present perfect continuous, relates past activities to the present. For instance, to form an affirmative sentence, ‘I have been playing’. To form a negative sentence, ‘I haven’t been playing’. To form a question, ‘have I been playing’. Note here, all verbs are to added ‘-ing’ at the end.