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Unit 17 presents the last parts of the essential basic English grammar discussed in this course: Modal auxiliary verbs, Passive voice, Relative Clauses, and Phrasal verbs.
Modal auxiliary verbs are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, have got to, need to, needn’t and ought to. They are used to express obligation, possibility/probability, permission/prohibition, ability, advice, and differing degrees of formality.
Unit 18 provides a comprehensive chart with examples for the main uses all modal auxiliary verbs. It also gives some brief teaching ideas.
In opposition to the active voice, passive voice takes the focus out of the agent of the action. This is so because the agent is much less important, or it is not known, or it can not be explicitly mentioned.
When a sentence in the active voice is changed into the passive voice the meaning and the tense of the sentence remain the same. However, in the passive voice it is the auxiliary verb that indicates the tense, while the main verb is always in the past participle. Only transitive verbs are used in the passive voice, which means that intransitive verbs like sleep, come and seem are never included in the passive.
Unit 18 includes a complete chart for the passive formation of all the tenses. It also gives some usage examples and teaching ideas.
Relative clauses such as who, which, that, are used to describe or give further information about a noun in the sentence. A defining relative clauses identifies clearly which person or thing is being mentioned and that information can not be removed without significantly changing the meaning of the sentence. A non-defining gives information not essential to the meaning of the sentence. That information is always placed between commas.
Unit 18 gives some examples for both defining and non-defining relative clauses.
Phrasal verbs are made with one verb plus one or two particles and operate as one item. Examples include turn up, switch off, stand up, slow down, run out of, etc. There are three basic types of phrasal verbs:
Type 1 - Intransitive: verbs cannot be followed by a direct object.
Type 2 - Transitive separable: an object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle, an object
noun can come either between the verb and the particle of after the particle.
Type 3 - Transitive inseparable: the object phrase of object pronoun can both come after the particle.
Unit 18 provides only a few examples of phrasal verbs but advises teachers to keep track of phrasal verbs and try to use them regularly in the classroom so the students might start using them naturally for themselves.