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This unit focuses on teaching pronunciation and phonology. Phonology is the study, science, analysis and classification of the physical properties of sounds.
Intonation means the variation in volume and pitch for a whole sentence (whereas stress is more concentrated on individual words).
Normal intonation in English is rise/fall. This is used for normal statements, short utterances, and/or shows that you finished what you want to say, and for straightforward questions (ex: How do you spell “rough”?).
The fall-rise intonation is used for surprise or disagreement and is used when looking for a response.
Flat intonation means you don't have much to say, or perhaps don’t want to communicate.
Techniques for indicating and teaching intonation include practicing with nonsense words, by gesture, humming or singing, making marks on the board.
Word stress: generally one word has only one stress, but longer words can have a second stress. We only stress syllables, not vowels or consonants.
In normal English speech there are more unstressed syllables than stressed syllables. Usually only the vital syllables in the words conveying the essential information are stressed.
Techniques for indicating and teaching stress include using contrastive stress, by gesture, choral work, and board work (underlining, boxes, or stress marks).
Sound joining in English includes: linking, sound dropping (t,d), sound changing, extra lettering.
Teaching techniques for pronouncing individual sounds include: peer dictation, the teacher’s mouth, visual diagrams of the mouth, phonemes, tongue twisters.
Different strategies exist for teaching pronunciation, including devoting a whole lesson, using lesson slots, or teaching it as and when required.