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This unit discussed the parts of speech, which can be seen as the basics of a grammatical system. Roughly, there are 8 parts of speech. Articles, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, gerunds, and prepositions and conjunctions.
Articles can be divided into definite and indefinite articles, definite articles referring to specific or particular nouns and indefinite being those that suggest a certain person or thing among a group.
Nouns refer to people, places, things, or ideas, and can take the place of a subject.
Pronouns can also act as the subject or object of a sentence, and mainly are found as personal (referring to people), possessive (showing possession), reflexive (identifying the noun itself) , and relative (used to connect clauses).
Verbs can show a state of being, or action. Transitive verbs take objects, and intransitive verbs can be used without an object. The four basic forms of a verb in English are the base form, past tense, past participle, and present participle. Verbs which past tense forms end in -ed are considered regular, whereas the others are considered irregular.
Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. In terms of comparative adjectives, most end with the suffix "-er" + than, and superlatives often end in "-est". Adjectives with more than 2 syllables use the words "more" and "most".
Adverbs, similar to adjectives, describe other words, but verbs and adjectives instead of nouns and pronouns. These words have 5 basic types: manner, place, time, degree, or frequency. Most adjectives can be made by using the adjective form and ending "-ly" such as quickly.
Gerunds verbs ending with the suffix "-ing" and can be used as a noun, taking the subject or object of a sentence.
Prepositions show relationships between words in the sentence. These words describe the time, movement, or position of a certain word in relation to another, but some prepositions such as with and of are are not classified.
Conjunctions join words of the same parts of speech together, and can also be used to connect two different clauses.